Forward Bicycle Co. Ltd
987 Jiangnan Road, Kunshan, Jiangsu, China
Tel： (0520) 500000 Fax ： (0520) 500001 Zip Code： 215300
February 1, 199#
Gulf Commercial Center
P. O. Box 376
U. A. E
Attention ： Mr. Y. Mohammed
The 12,000 cycles you ordered will be ready for dispatch by 17th December. Since you require them for onward shipment to Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman and Qatar, we are arranging for them to be packed in seaworthy containers.
Each bicycle is enclosed in a corrugated cardboard pack, and 20 are banned together and wrapped in sheet plastic. A container holds 240 cycles; the whole cargo would therefore comprise 50 containers, each weighing 8 tons. Dispatch can be made from our works by rail to be forwarded from Shanghai harbour. The freight charges from works to Shanghai are US$80 per container, totally US$4.000 for this cnsignment, excluding container hire, which will be charged to your account.
Please let us have your delivery instruction.
Business etiquette is made up of significantly more important things than knowing which fork to use at lunch with a client. Unfortunately, in the perception of others, the devil is in the details. People may feel that if you cant be trusted not to embarrass yourself in business and social situations, you may lack the self-control necessary to be good at what you do. Etiquette is about presenting yourself with the kind of polish that shows you can be taken seriously. Etiquette is also about being comfortable around people (and making them comfortable around you!)
People are a key factor in your own and your business success. Many potentially worthwhile and profitable alliances have been lost because of an unintentional breach of manners.
Dan McLeod, president of Positive Management Leadership Programs, a union avoidance company, says, "Show me a boss who treats his or her employees abrasively, and Ill show you an environment ripe for labor problems and obviously poor customers relations. Disrespectful and discourteous treatment of employees is passed along from the top."
Most behavior that is perceived as disrespectful, discourteous or abrasive is unintentional, and could have been avoided by practicing good manners or etiquette. Weve always found that most negative experiences with someone were unintentional and easily repaired by keeping an open mind and maintaining open, honest communication. Basic knowledge and practice of etiquette is a valuable advantage, because in a lot of situations, a second chance may not be possible or practical.
There are many written and unwritten rules and guidelines for etiquette, and it certainly behooves a business person to learn them. The caveat is that there is no possible way to know all of them!
These guidelines have some difficult-to-navigate nuances, depending on the company, the local culture, and the requirements of the situation. Possibilities to commit a faux pas are limitless, and chances are, sooner or later, youll make a mistake. But you can minimize them, recover quickly, and avoid causing a bad impression by being generally considerate and attentive to the concerns of others, and by adhering to the basic rules of etiquette. When in doubt, stick to the basics.
The most important thing to remember is to be courteous and thoughtful to the people around you, regardless of the situation. Consider other peoples feelings, stick to your convictions as diplomatically as possible. Address conflict as situation-related, rather than person-related. Apologize when you step on toes. You cant go too far wrong if you stick with the basics you learned in Kindergarten. (Not that those basics are easy to remember when youre in a hard-nosed business meeting!)
This sounds simplistic, but the qualities we admire most when we see them in people in leadership positions, those are the very traits we work so hard to engender in our children. If you always behave so that you would not mind your spouse, kids, or grandparents watching you, youre probably doing fine. Avoid raising your voice (surprisingly, it can be much more effective at getting attention when lower it!) using harsh or derogatory language toward anyone (present or absent), or interrupting. You may not get as much "airtime" in meetings at first, but what you do say will be much more effective because it carries the weight of credibility and respectability.
The following are guidelines and tips that weve found helpful for dealing with people in general, in work environments, and in social situations.
Its About People
Talk and visit with people. Dont differentiate by position or standing within the company. Secretaries and janitorial staff actually have tremendous power to help or hinder your career. Next time you need a document prepared or a conference room arranged for a presentation, watch how many people are involved with that process (youll probably be surprised!) and make it a point to meet them and show your appreciation.
Make it a point to arrive ten or fifteen minutes early and visit with people that work near you. When youre visiting another site, linger over a cup of coffee and introduce yourself to people nearby. If you arrive early for a meeting, introduce yourself to the other participants. At social occasions, use the circumstances of the event itself as an icebreaker. After introducing yourself, ask how they know the host or how they like the crab dip. Talk a little about yourself- your hobbies, kids, or pets; just enough to get people to open up about theirs and get to know you as a person.
Keep notes on people. There are several "contact management" software applications that are designed for salespeople, but in business, nearly everyone is a salesperson in some capacity or another. They help you create a "people database" with names, addresses, phone numbers, birthdays, spouse and childrens names; whatever depth of information is appropriate for your situation.
Its a good idea to remember what you can about people; and to be thoughtful. Send cards or letters for birthdays or congratulations of promotions or other events, send flowers for engagements, weddings or in condolence for the death of a loved one or family member. People will remember your kindness, probably much longer than you will!
Dear Mr Zampieri
With reference to your letter dated 14 June, in which you requested information about A Cut Above, please find enclosed details about our company and the services we offer.
Our aim is always to provide our clients with the best possible combination of food, entertainment and location. By choosing A cut Above, you can relax and enjoy your special occasion while we do all the work. Events catered for by A cut Above include corporate functions such as conventions and Christmas balls and also family celebrations such as birthdays, weddings and anniversaries.
A Cut Above offers a variety of services from simply providing a gourmet menu to helping you choose the right venue and organise entertainment. We specialise in using our experience to meet your nees. To help us achieve this aim, we always arrange a meeting with a new client well before the date of any event in order to discuss the various possibilities.
As you can appreciate, we are unable to give quotations before our initial briefing with a client as price per head vaires with choice of menu.
To arrange a meeting or for any further information, please do not hesitate to contact myself or Elena Polidoro on 0123 4578.
A Cut Above look forward to hearing from you.
This is to inform you that we are unable to make delivery on the above referenced purchase order on the date indicated.
We should have our merchandise ready to ship within 10 days of the original delivery date and we hope that you can hold off until that time.
We did want to inform you of this delay as soon we were advised in order to give you as much time as possible to make alternate arrangements， if necessary. We can assure you， however， that if your order remains in force we will expedite delivery to you as soon as we have received the merchandise.
Please accept our apology for this delay and thank you for your understanding.
A number of employees clearly suffer from a lack of motivation as a result of dissatisfaction in one or more areas of their work. The key findings are outlined below:
Staff feel undervalued by the company, both on a financial and a personal level. It is generally felt that the companyˇs competitors offer higher levels of remuneration. The perception that the managers are unappreciative of staff efforts is particularly noticeable in the Sales Department.
Certain employees feel under-challenged. The company is clearly not exploiting its human resources.
There appears to be a breakdown of communication in the Production Department. The confusion and resultant ill-feeling towards managers has the potential to disrupt the production cycles.
We strongly recommend the following measures:
An evaluation of job profiles throughout the company to assess whether skills could be utilised more efficiently
A review of the current salary structure involving the comparison with similar organisations
It is also essential to investigate and take action regarding the communication in the Production and Sales Department.
To： Willian Huang， Department of General Affairs
From： Joseph Liu， Director of Personnel
Subject： Work Transfer
Date： July 15， 199-
I think， Mr. Huang， the Director of your Department has already talked to you about the change in your work. We have arranged to appoint you as section supervisor in the Security Department at a salary of US$** a month （20% increase） as from Tuesday， August 1， 199-. In your new post， you will be responsible to Mr. Francis Yang for the work of night shift employees in the department.
Your eight years of loyal service in the General Affairs Department have been appreciated by the leadership of the company. Your transfer is completely due to the need of company. You have known that many thefts have recently taken place that have caused heavy losses to our company. We trust that with your appointment to this post， the security work will be greatly strengthened.
Please write to confirm that you will accept this appointment.
Facing Business Challenges at Holiday Inn Worldwide
Sending Invitations Across the Globe
In the 1960s a family vacation in the United States usually meant loading the kids into the station wagon and driving off down the highway toward a tourist destination. And when weary vacationers needed to rest for the night, they often looked for the familiar green signs with “Holiday Inn” written in script and a colorful star for emphasis. All across the United States, this sign welcomed travelers to Holliday Inn hotels with promises of quality, comfort, and value.
By 1968 Holiday Inn was so well known in the United States that it began opening franchises in Europe. In 1973 the company opened its first Asian hotel in Japan, and in 1984 it became the first U.S.-based hotel to open for business in China. For 25 years Holiday Inn enjoyed great success in the European and Asian markets, opening 600 hotels and earning a reputation as upscale , professional, and well run.
However, in the 1980s Holiday Inn’s fortunes were beginning to fade in the United States. Many of the franchises were outdated and substandard . Family vacationers were being replaced by business travelers as the hotel industry’s bread and butter , and aggressive competitors with superior marketing strategies were targeting this growing segment . In addition, overbuilding had set off a wave of price discounting . As a result, both Holiday Inn’s share of the lodging market and its image took a nosedive .
But in the 1990s this icon of the U.S. highway was brought back to life after being purchased by Bass PLC, a British conglomerate. Bass moved quickly to make Holiday Inn Worldwide the leading hotel chain, not just in the United States but around the globe. In the United States, Holiday Inn pursued a strategy that segmented the market into different types of travelers and created a unique type of lodging for each group. Under names like Holiday Inn Express, Holiday Inn Select, Sunspree Resorts, and Crowne Plaza, the company offered different accommodations and amenities at different prices to suit the diverse needs of business and leisure travelers. Combined with a campaign to bring all of the franchises back up to a high standard of quality, the strategy quickly began to pay off.
Even so, the top brass at Holiday Inn Worldwide knows that the greatest growth potential is not in the saturated U.S. market but in the evolving markets of Europe, Asia, and Latin America. With increasing tourism and business development in these regions, the demand for comfortable, consistent, and affordable accommodations is booming . Holiday Inn needs a strategy for tapping this vast potential. Would the strategies that fueled Holiday Inn’s turnaround in the United States bring similar results internationally? Large-scale construction of new hotels will play a major role, so what kinds of hotels should they be? How can the company best meet the needs of a wide variety of international travelers? Should Holiday Inn expand through franchises or by opening company-owned hotels? Should the same type of promotion be used for the entire global market or should it be localized to each geographic area? These are questions that Raymond Lewis faces daily as vice president of marketing. If you were Lewis, how would you answer them?
Meeting Business Challenges at Holiday Inn Worldwide
Part of Raymond Lewis’s job is to monitor and predict changes in the ever-evolving global market . Among the trends he has observed is the increasing similarity between the needs and desires expressed by consumers and businesses around the world in certain product categories such as lodging. On the other hand, Lewis knows that various countries and cultures approach purchases differently, and that people of various cultures respond differently to product promotion . His challenge, then, is to figure out how to satisfy both the similar and the diverse needs of each new market.
Lewis also knows that all travelers, regardless of where they are from or where they are going, share many of the same desires, fears, and expectations when they are traveling. They may not speak the same language or live the same lives while at home, but when they’re on the road, all travelers are (1) away from home and out of their personal comfort zones, (2) in different and often unfamiliar surroundings, and (3) subject to the same hassles and hardships. Therefore, Holiday Inn focuses on delivering a consistent product around the world. This way, whether the hotel is in South Korea, India, Buenos Aires , or Israel, travelers know that they will always receive a comfortable room at a fair price.
In addition, the strategy of segmenting the market by types of travelers that proved so successful in the United States also works abroad, but in a different way. Segmentation in the hotel industry is a relatively new concept in Europe, and in Asia it is virtually nonexistent. This is largely because in many of the developing nations of Asia, travel has only recently become an option for the majority of people. As a result, not every type of Holiday Inn hotel will be successful in every country. The company must know each market very well before it decides which type of hotel to open. Does the area draw mainly tourists or business travelers? How long do visitors usually stay? Do people from surrounding areas travel often? What types of accommodations do competitors offer in the area? By knowing the answers to questions like these, Holiday Inn is able to decide which type of hotel will best serve the needs of travelers to the area. For example, the company opened a SunSpree Resort in Arequipa, Peru, close to Machu Pichu, a popular international tourist destination. Holiday Inn’s management team feels that Sunspree has a great chance for success in this location because the hotel caters to tourists.
In the same way, Holiday Inn management expects a mix of business and leisure travelers to visit Seoul, South Korea. Therefore, the new Holiday Inn Seoul appeals to a broad range of travelers by offering a business center, banquet facilities , four restaurants, a fitness center , and a gift shop.
Just as in its early days of expansion in the United States, Holiday Inn is accomplishing its international expansion through a mix of wholly owned facilities and franchises, depending on the availability of resources and potential for profit in each local market. Although franchising agreements place less risk on Holiday Inn Worldwide, they also require the company to give up more control than it would by opening wholly owned facilities. However, franchises must adhere to strict quality standards if they intend to operate under Holiday Inn’s famous name.
Lewis and his team also recognize that even though travelers have similar expectations for the quality and value they get in a hotel, sometimes they like to stay in places that don’t feel like hotel chains. Therefore, the company has opened hotels in Europe, Australia, and South Africa that have a style and character unique to their locations. In this way, Holiday Inn is able to tailor its global product to local markets.
Nonetheless, Holiday Inn’s promotion strategy is decidedly global, regardless of which markets it enters. Lewis bases the strategy on two themes: “Welcome” and “Stay with somebody you know.” Although the ad copy is translated when necessary, even the visual format is the same from country to country. Of course, cultural differences must be accommodated from time to time. For example, travelers in Britain preferred an ad that focused on a friendly doorman, whereas U.S. and German travelers preferred a more sentimental ad showing a businesswoman receiving a fax of a drawing from her child.
The inspiration for this global strategy came to Lewis, not surprisingly, while he was traveling. When boarding a plane at Dulles Airport outside of Washington, D.C., he passed a group of Russian teenagers gathered around a guitar player singing “Puff the Magic Dragon,” a folk song that was popular in the United States a few decades ago. This connection between cultures helped convince Lewis that the world’s people were alike in many ways, particularly in the field of pleasure and business travel.
It remains to be seen how successful Holiday Inn’s global strategy will be in the long run . The company is off to a flying start. However, competitors such as Marriott and Choice Hotels are moving quickly to make sure Holiday Inn doesn’t outpace them in the hot new global markets. But one thing is sure, Lewis and the rest of the management team are not content with Holiday Inn being a leading hotel chain in the United States. They want Holiday Inn to be the leader around the world.
Thank you for your kind letter regarding your exceptional treatment by one of our employees.
A copy of your letter has been forwarded to the personnel department and will be included in the employees file. So seldom is it that a customer takes the time to write a letter of appreciation,that I feel moved to reward your initiative. Please accept the enclosed certificate,which,when presented,will entitle the bearer to a ten percent discount on the merchandise being purchased at that time.
This is but a small token of our appreciation of customers such as you,upon whose satisfaction we have been allowed to grow and prosper in this highly competitive marketplace. Again,on behalf of our entire organization, a heart-felt thank you.
After checking with all of our other stores in the area，I regret to inform you that I have been unable to locate another [item requested] for you.
If you would like me to place a special order， I would be most happy to do so. Normally， it takes between four to six weeks to receive merchandise ordered in this manner. If this is your desire， please call me at your convenience at [telephone and extension].
On behalf of [name of firm] I would like to thank you for shopping at our store and if there is any way that we can be of further assistance to you， please let us know.
Thanks for seeing me off at the airport. I really appreciate it. No problem, its my pleasure. I am glad you had a chance to visit our headquarters, and hope you can come back soon. We should be back in about three months. Well have another corporate meeting next quarter. Will you be in the area at that time? I should be.... Remember to let me know when your flight is coming in when you come. Ill come and pick you up at the airport. Youre too kind. Here we are at the terminal, what airline are you flying with? Um...Let me look at the ticket. Oh, thats right, China Air. China Air is in terminal B, this is the international terminal, so all you have to do is walk straight through those doors and turn to your left, you should be able to see the check-in counter. Thanks again for all your help. If youre ever in the Michigan area, be sure to look me up. Yes. Lets keep in touch
Thank you for your letter of 2 November. We are delighted to hear that you are to pleased with the refurbishment of your hotel. As your know .in our line of work, we depend on good ,reports about our projects to win further business. Our clients always shop around and look for references before committing themselves. With your permission, we would like to use your hotel as a reference when we discuss similar refurbishments in the hotel industry . Would you agree to our suggesting that future clients should call you? It would also be most helpful if we could occasionally bring a client to look at your hotel . We would , of course , stay overnight at least.I’ll call you next week to hear your reaction. Thanks again for you kind words.
Your delivery of [description of goods] which was received by us on [date] does not meet the specifications as outlined in our contract of [date] .
Inasmuch as this merchandise does not meet our requirements， we are hereby requesting that you suspend any future deliveries as called for in our herein referenced contract and release us from that certain contract.
Due to our contractual commitments， we must supply our customer with the appropriate goods within a specified period of time which requires that we now proceed to make our purchases from a different source.
We would appreciate receiving your release as soon as possible.
Describing graphs Ex 4: Sample answer: (132words)
The share price of IBM and AOL showed a upward trend from June until the end of 1998.However, while AOL shares then continued to rise steadily over the next three months, the price of IBM shares fell slightly. By March 1999 both shares were worth about $100.
AOL shares then shot up, almost doubling in value within four weeks. They reached a high of $180 in mid-April before collapsing to just over $100 per share at the beginning of May. There was a slight recovery during that month however, despite this by June 1999 the price of AOL shares was once again about $100. In contrast, despite minor fluctuations, IBM shares made a steady recovery over the three month period, finishing at just over $100, almost equal to AOL.