III. Reading Comprehension
Directions: There are 5 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by 4 questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. You should decide on the best choice and mark your answer on the Answer Sheet.
Questions 41 to 44 are based on the following passage:
By direct observations and many experiments, biologists have discovered that practically all animals have some sense of hearing or vibration. Earthworms feel vibrations in the soil, fish can be trained to respond to certain tones, male mosquitoes are attracted by the sound of the female, and frogs will respond to a tape
recording of their own voices.
The inner ear is composed of delicate membranes which bear dense patches of specialized cells called maculae. Each of these collections of cells can carry a message to the brain. What message is carried by a macula depends upon how it is affected. The message which is carried is not, however, always connected with the hearing sense. For instance, a certain kind of tadpole can tell the depth of the water it is swimming in by the pitch of a tone which is produced by its own lungs.
In the human and all other mammals, the macula has developed into an organ which can easily be seen. This organ is called the cochlea. This spiral shaped organ contains the macula itself and it is called "organ of Corti" after its discoverer. If you have ever seen a snail shell, you know how a cochlea looks.
When sound waves enter the cochlea, which is really a tube coiled around, they set a membrane into a back and forth motion and cause a new wave. This is something like the way in which high and low sounds are produced by a flute or whistle. The high sounds are produced when the air is prevented by the holes from going through, while the low sounds are produced by allowing more of the air to pass. All this is what produces the differences between high and low sounds. The loudness of a sound is evidently produced by how much the membrane is cause to move.
Whether or not hearing is really produced in all animals by the effect of pressure is not definitely known by scientists as yet. We do know, however, that nature has set up some very delicate hearing mechanisms for its creatures. Scientists must explore much further for more knowledge about how animals use their ears.
41. According to the article practically all animals have some sense of____.
D. both B and C
42. The cochlea is found____.
A. in fish
B. only in humans
C. in all animals
D. in all mammals
43. Scientists know____.
A. that all animals have a cochlea
B. very little about hearing in animals
C. that mosquitoes cannot hear sounds
D. that hearing is produced by air pressure in mammals.
44. The article is mostly about ____.
A. how sound is produced
B. learning by observing
C. the workings of the inner ear
D. outer ear formation in various animals
Questions 45 to 48 are based on the following passage:
Dear Ms. Answers,
I've been offered a job promotion that would require me to relocate abroad to Paris from Chicago. The salary for my new position would be much higher than what I'm getting now, and I've always wanted to work in the French branch of our company, but I'm worried that living in Paris could be more expensive than where I live now. If this is the case, perhaps the increase in salary won't make a big difference. Can you tell me anything about the cost of living in Paris?
Dear Mr. Daniels,
Congratulations on receiving such a wonderful employment opportunity. Living and working in a foreign country is not something that many people get to do. Although it can be a very rewarding experience, it can also be very expensive if your finances are not managed properly.
In the same way that you will need to adjust to a'different language, customs, and cukure, you will also need to develop new daily routines and spending habits. This aspect of living abroad can be difficult for some people who may be tempted to live their daily lives as if they are on vacation: eating in fancy restaurants, buying expensive souvenirs, and going sightseeing.
It is natural to live like you are on vacation when moving to a foreign environment, but it is important not to get carried away. Establishing a weekly and monthly budget for yourself is the best way to take control of your new financial situation. It may be helpful to keep track of your spending habits for the first weeks after your arrival and establish a budget based on that.
As long as you manage your finances as you would if you were at home, living in Paris should not be any more expensive than living where you are now. In my research, the only two things I found that were significantly more expensive in Paris than in Chicago were taxi fares and high-speed trains. Fortunately, Paris has an excellent, rather inexpensive subway system.
To view a list of common French items and their equivalent prices in American dollars, visit www. costoflivine.com/varis.
45. According to Mr. Daniel’s e-mail, what is he concerned about?
A. Living expenses
B. His salary
C. Commuting to work
D. His vacation days
46. What does Ms. Answers suggest Mr. Daniels do?
A. Establish a budget
B. Speak with his boss
C. Look at train fares
D. Consult a guide book
47. In Ms. Answers' e-mail, the word "track" in paragraph 3, line 4, is closest in meaning to____.
48. What does Ms. Answers say about the subway?
A. It is new.
B. It is dirty.
C. It is inefficient.
D. It is inexpensive.
Questions 49 to 52 are based on the following passage:
Ostrum GE, the second largest power company in the Nordic countries, officially opened its first Hydrogen Energy Station (HES), with technology products provided by Gredler Energy Systems Corporation. The new station will supply clean hydrogen fuel to three fuel cell buses as part of the prestigious Green Europe
Advanced Transport (GREAT) program. Stockholm (斯德哥尔摩) is one of four GREAT cities that will be using Gredler Energy hydrogen infrastructure products.
Mr. Peter Russell, Chief Operating Officer of Gredler Energy, was in Stockholm for the station opening and commented, "The opening of this station represents the first step in the introduction of a hydrogen infrastructure in the City of Stockholm. Ostrum and the City of Stockholm have taken an essential step towards creating a pathway to environmentally sustainable urban transportation solutions and we are delighted to be part of this important movement."
The Stockholm HES is comprised of four modules: pressurized water electrolysis-based hydrogen generation, compression, high-pressure storage and hydrogen fuel dispenser. The station is capable of producing approximately 120kg per day of high-purity, high-pressure hydrogen using Gredler Energy's proprietary technology. Each fuel cell bus carries approximately 40kg of hydrogen at 350bar (5,000psi).
Gredler Energy Systems Corporation is the world leading developer and supplier of integrated hydrogen solutions, all using the company's proprietary hydrogen generation water electrolysis technology along with products from corporate partners.
49. Who will be in charge of the new hydrogen energy station?
A. Oredler Energy Systems
B. Ostrum GE
C. The GREAT Program
D. The City of Stockholm
50. How much hydrogen will the new station produce each day?
51. The word "sustainable" in paragraph 2, line 5 is closest in meaning to____.
52. What is true about the GREAT program?
A. It operates in four countries.
B. It is operated by the Gredler Corporation.
C. It promotes the use of non-polluting fuels.
D. It studies the effects of hydrogen on the atmosphere.
Questions 53 to 56 are based on the following passage:
The rise of multinational corporations, global marketing, new communication technologies, and shrinking cultural differences have led to an unparalleled increase in global public relations or PR.
Surprisingly, since modem PR was largely an American invention, the U.S. leadership in public relations is being threatened by PR efforts in other countries. Twenty years ago, for example, the world's top five public relations agencies were American-owned. In 2003, only one was. The British in particular are becoming more sophisticated and creative. A recent survey found that more than half of all British companies include PR as part of their corporate planning activities, compared to about one third of U.S. companies. It may not be long before London replaces New York as the capital of PR.
Why is America lagging behind in the global PR race? First, Americans as a whole tend to be fairly provincial and take more of an interest in local affairs. Knowledge of world geography, for example, has never been strong in this country. Secondly, Americans lag behind their European and Asian counterparts in knowing a second language. Less than 5 percent of Burson-Marshall's U.S. employees know two languages. Ogilvy and Mather has about the same percentage. Conversely, some European firms have half of more of their employees fluent in a second language. Finally, people involved in PR abroad tend to keep a closer eye on international
affairs. In the financial PR area, for instance, most Americans read the Wall Street Journal. Overseas, their counterparts read the Journal as well as the Financial Times of London and The Economist, publications not often read in this country.
Perhaps the PR industry might take a lesson from Ted Turner of CNN. Turner recently announced that the word "foreign" would no longer be used on CNN news broadcast. According to Turner, global communications have made the nations of the world so interdependent that there is no longer any such thing as foreign.
53. According to the passage, U.S. leadership in public relations is being threatened because of____.
A. an unparalleled increase in the number of public relations companies
B. increased efforts of other countries in public relations
C. shrinking cultural differences and new communications technologies
D. the decreasing number of multinational corporations in the U.S.
54. The word "provincial" (Line 2, Para. 3) most probably means ____.
A. limited in outlook
B. like people from the provinces
C. rigid in thinking
D. interested in world financial affairs
55. We learn from the third paragraph that employees in the American PR industry____.
A. speak at least one foreign language fluently
B. are not as sophisticated as their European counterparts
C. are ignorant about world geography
D. enjoy reading a great variety of English business publications
56. What lesson might the PR industry take from Ted Turner of CNN?
A. American PR companies should be more internationally-minded.
B. The American PR industry should develop global communication technologies.
C. People working in PR should be more fluent in foreign language.
D. People involved in PR should avoid using the word "foreign"
Questions 57 to 60 are based on the following passage:
On the night of August 17, 1959, at about 20 minutes before midnight, the ground in the vicinity of Yellowstone National Park began shaking violently. At the time there was a rumbling sound, something like a huge truck would make. Both the heaving of the ground and the noise were very frightening but lasted not quite 45 seconds.
This earthquake near Yellowstone Park was just one of nearly a million that happen every year all over the world. And as bad as this quake was, many have been worse. Earthquake experts say that the Yellowstone quake of 1959 was about as bad as the one which hit San Francisco in 1906. But the San Francisco quake caused more damage because it struck in a place where there were so many people living. In San Francisco 700 persons lost their lives. An earthquake in Japan in 1923 took 160,000 lives. In China in 1920 an earthquake took 200,000 lives. It is easy to understand why earthquakes are so feared.
What causes these terrible shakes of the very ground on which we live?
To answer that question we must first understand some things about the earth itself. Forty miles deep in the earth is the edge of the outer crust of the earth, and there it is so hot that instead of hard rock there is material much like the hot lava that a volcano erupts. It is the earth's 40-mile deep crust with which we are concerned when we seek the cause of earthquakes. The earth's crust is formed of many different layers of rocks. The layers of rocks are not laid evenly, as a bricklayer would build a wall. Instead, the earth's crust is made of rock layers that are often uneven and not perfectly balanced. Because of the great weight pressing down on them, these layers tend to fold downward at weak spots, and this finally causes an actual break in the crust. When this break occurs, or when the sides of an old break slip, the earth quakes, or shakes, while the crust is settling into a new position.
Sometime these faults are very small, and we then feel only a little tremor. The tremor may even be so light that only the most delicate machine will record it. Most earthquakes are of this weak kind. Sometimes a break in the earth's crust comes about, which starts such a landslide as that which occurred in Madison Canyon. It then takes not one, but many shakes for the earth to heal the fault and settle. That is why many after-shocks follow a major earthquake. Sometimes these go on for several years.
57. The Yellowstone earthquake was____.
A. one of the more severe B. not severe
C. the worst in U.S. history D. a very small one
58. The San Francisco quake was worse than the one in Yellowstone because____.
A. it lasted longer
B. it struck where so many people lived
C. there were mountains at Yellowstone
D. there was a river at Yellowstone
59. The earth's crust is made of____.
C. many layer of rock
60. Some times aftershocks follow an earthquake for as long as____.
A. days B. months C. years D. centuries